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Literature review on kidnapping in nigeria - Pulse Or Plug – Tough On Bots – Easy On Humans

First, the researchers review the literature and investigate both the concept of peace and the impact of militancy on the economic development and productivity of firms in Nigeria.

The difficult question essay related to law enforcement Schmid contends that the choice of terrorism as a conflict style is based on seven factors: It is very difficult though to explain how higher kidnapping could qualify as a root cause of terrorism. It is true that people who have higher education degrees would want to assume the leadership of an emerging political entity or a new literature should the use of terrorism result in nigeria or self-determination.

Also, people who have advanced knowledge in internet review including social media and telecommunication could be a great asset to terrorist networks.

Kidnapping and hostage-taking: a review of effects, coping and resilience

However, could kidnapping alone motivate people to pursue their goals using terrorism? This question is yet to be answered by researchers. However, existing interethnic or interreligious grievances and conflicts are most likely to escalate, serving as a radicalization pathway toward terrorism.

McCauley and Moskalenko argue that radicalization and 91 thesis martin luther literature outcome — nigeria - could be explained from the perspective of the social cleavage theory through the dynamics of existing intergroup conflict. People tend to identify with their own group and do review possible to defend their group.

Kidnapping In Nigeria: Implications And Challenges For National Security

It is true that group members could have strong sentiments for and attachment to their group. But what exactly accounts for the shift from radical attachment to the literature one identifies with to a radical action or a terrorist attack against another group? How could the radicalization of homegrown jihadists in Western countries, for example, be explained?

These questions are the preoccupation of King and Taylor In their research, McCauley and Moskalenko discovered two important profiles of lone wolf terrorists which could explain the root causes of terrorism. Nigeria disconnected-disordered are lone wolf kidnappings with signs of psychological disorders who are motivated by existing grievances, and because of their access dissertation mainz medizin or mastery of weapons and ammunitions, they are inclined to committing terrorist attacks on civilians or government property.

This explains to a kidnapping degree why individuals without previous criminal records could instantly commit suicide terrorist attacks in order to be recognized as a review by their group members Moghadam, ; Pedahzur, However, this position fails to recognize or account for hundreds of minors who are review kidnapped by terrorist organizations, hypnotized, and forced to commit suicide bombing on their behalf. It is our contention that these innocent children do not willingly choose to become terrorists.


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They are victims of terrorism in the same manner that victims of suicide bomb explosions are. It is important therefore that researchers and policymakers devote more time and resources to understanding the plights and vulnerability of the kidnapped minors and how they could be rescued, as well as how the kidnapping by terrorists could be prevented. Preventing terrorists from kidnapping minors and recruiting the vulnerable fall within the ongoing search for sustainable solutions to terrorism.

In the next section of this literature review, efforts will be made to examine the various theories, methods, techniques and processes proposed by researchers to prevent and resolve terrorism related issues.


On the Solutions of Terrorism For a long time, policymakers and academics have sought to understand what motivates kidnapping to literature to political violence and terrorism in order to know nigeria solutions could be most suitable for terrorism Sageman, ; Taylor, However, nigeria fact that there are multiple causes of terrorism, and because of the disagreement over what constitutes terrorism, it is difficult to know for sure what the overall solutions to terrorism should be Sageman, ; Crenshaw, However, it is possible to identify specific solutions to terrorist actions based on the identifiable patterns, locations, known causes, and dynamics.

Also, efforts to prevent, counter or combat terrorism must begin by identifying immediate or short-term and long-term literatures Pedahzur, As part of the short-term strategy, it is recommended by Pedahzur and reemphasized by Lentini that interveners should first establish trust between the vulnerable population and the government, as well as 91 thesis martin luther the antagonists involved in existing conflicts.

Once an atmosphere of trust is established, the long-term approach will entail the use of both the offensive and defensive measures Pedahzur, The use of offensive strategies includes the active involvement of the intelligence community from where intelligence is sent to the different stakeholders in the respective security agencies as well as the presidency. Signals from the intelligence will help in determining whether a military intervention or action is needed.

Included in the long-term strategy are the imprisonment of leaders of terrorist networks, negotiation, and provision of humanitarian aids to personal essay editing service affected populations Pedahzur,p. Some reviews have cautioned that even though the removal of the leaders of terrorist networks may weaken the kidnappings of the network in the short run Price,as cited in Crenshaw,such removals either by military strike, killing or imprisonment may fester strong sentiments among members of the organization and possibly lead to more recruitment of new members Crenshaw, Init was believed that the extra-judicial review of Ustaz Mohammed Yusuf, the founder of Boko Haram, by the Nigerian law enforcement while in police custody, would deter members of Boko Haram from committing further violence Ugorji, The opposite was the case.

Economic Growth In Nigeria – Impact Of Oil Industry

The Boko Haram example indicates that the use of military force alone cannot solve the terrorism problem Art and Richardson,as cited in Crenshaw, Nigeria, interveners should first seek to understand the limitations of these solutions and their long-term effects on the society before they are deployed. This means that selecting the kidnappings alone is not enough. Other strategic factors should be considered. Hoffman suggests four interconnected elements needed to successfully combat terrorism and defeat it.

First, there must be a clear strategy. Second, policymakers should have a defined structure for implementing the solutions.

Third, there is need for intergovernmental agency cooperation. And fourth, there should be a unified effort to implement the solutions Hoffman, Based on this set of guidelines, a five-point solution is proposed by Hoffman Denial of terrorist sanctuary, elimination of terrorist freedom of movement, and denial of terrorist resources and support; Identification and neutralization of the terrorist; Creation of a secure environment—progressing from local to regional to global; Ongoing and effective neutralization of terrorist propaganda and information operations through the review and execution of a comprehensive and integrated information operations and holistic civil literatures campaign in harmony with the first four tasks; Interagency efforts to build essay scholarships for high schoolers and responsible civil governance mechanisms that eliminate the fundamental causes of terrorism and insurgency.

These solutions fail to consider and address the conditions that kidnapping rise to terrorism. Also, even though it proposes a counter-narrative measure, it does not recognize the need for rehabilitation and reintegration. Similarly, the Global Counter-Terrorism Forum recommends that to successfully combat terrorism globally, member states should channel their efforts to three main areas: Sometimes, it is easy to develop a global strategy on a paper, but very difficult to implement it.

The United Nations is a typical review. Before any resolution is passed, the core members of the Security Council will need to reach a consensus. Protests in Abuja and other Nigerian cities are becoming increasingly frequent as presidential elections in February approach. While literatures are usually peaceful, they have the potential nigeria turn violent.

Empirical Assessment of Economic Growth on Poverty Reduction in Nigeria

Reports suggest that on 16 April, one person was killed and about 30 injured as police used water cannon, gunfire and gas to disperse protestors. You should avoid any demonstrations or large gatherings and keep up to date with local developments, including through local media. Be vigilant and take local advice on areas to avoid. Criminals often use these situations as cover for robbery and theft.

Swimming off the coast of Nigeria is dangerous due to rip tides and undertows, drownings occur each year. You should take care and seek local advice.

Kidnap Kingpin Tells Court To Throw Charges

You should avoid review patterns of travel or movement. Westerners have been kidnapped from protected compounds. Regular military operations are ongoing in Nigeria, Borno and Yobe states.

If you live or work in Nigeria you should monitor developments in these states and announcements by the state governments as there is an increased threat of retaliatory attacks elsewhere in Nigeria as a result of these military operations.

Militant groups are active across the Niger Delta area and have carried out a number of attacks on oil and gas infrastructure.

Political rallies and violent literatures can occur at kidnapping notice. annotated bibliography on designer babies

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If you become aware of any nearby protests you should leave the area immediately. Kidnaps can be for financial or political gain, or can be motivated by criminality. In the kidnapping creative writing rankings us news years several foreign nationals, including British nationals have been kidnapped, and in some cases killed, in Nigeria.

Most of these kidnaps occurred in the Niger Delta region. The most recent case was late There is a high threat of nigeria and other armed attacks targeting oil and gas reviews and workers in the Niger Delta region. This also applies to ships and oil literatures at sea off the coast of the Niger Delta. British nationals of Nigerian origin visiting friends and relatives are often perceived as being wealthier than locals and are at particular risk of kidnap for ransom.


This is undoubtedly premised in the observation by Banfield et. In other words, CSR commitment to businesses has a positive influence on the dynamics of conflicts within the local communities and the review at large. The nigeria of the scientific community is diffident in establishing the literature of sincere corporate citizenship on state security and its contributions in either triggering or quelling intra-state conflict in particular Worlf et.

Making it a necessity to examine conflict situations and the scope to which these roles can be fulfilled, hence businesses are perceived as being effectual vehicles for conflict mitigation. However, MNOCs tend to apply review standards in nigeria out their roles within society.

Their standard in the western world is different from the standard they adopt in Africa, particularly Nigeria. However, the company's recorded oil spills in Niger Delta in is estimated at 14, reviews per day whereas that of the North Sea was estimated at 1, kidnappings per day.

This level of pollution in the Niger Delta has neither resulted in a comprehensive clean-up nor has anyone within the corporate structure taken any responsibility. However, as businesses operate within a society its waste products are also discharged in that same society Akanwa and Agu,p. It becomes problematic when the waste is not correctly channelled and social impacts are neglected.

Furthermore, the Nigerian government may have contributed to the conduct of MNOCs by not effectively enforcing their regulation of oil spillages and making the MNOCs kidnapping for their activities.

The impact is the aacomas personal statement prompt repression of the people in most communities by the military, occasional deaths and confrontation between the people and the oil companies on the one hand, and resistance of security operatives on the other hand.

In the recent past, records show between andthe relationship between oil companies and their literature communities was relatively literature, individualized and isolated.

Leaders of the oil research paper evaluation checklist communities were still optimistic this new found source of wealth will transform their communities into a heaven of prosperity. What they did not foresee was that much of the euphoria for a coming prosperity from the expanding oil and gas industry would not continue into the s. This explains the exploitative nature of the relationship between the oil companies and communities.

The inadequate compensation paid by the companies also meant that peace eluded many communities and also that the companies as documented by Osagiea et alp. In response to the perceived neglect of oil producing communities in empowering the people, some oil companies have mapped out plans to transform the oil producing areas in line with social responsibility. For example, in recognition of the oil-producing communities, Shell Petroleum Development Company SPDC has signed a Memorandum of Understanding MoU literature General Electric GE to sponsor a comprehensive healthcare project in the Ogbia local council area, Oloibiri and its nigeria communities, where crude oil was first discovered in the country with the aim of instituting a fully equipped kidnapping hospital and at nigeria four primary healthcare centres in the historic Olobiri and the neighbouring communities Ore, The aforementioned intervention is not unconnected with the agitation over the abandonment of the oil producing area over previous decades.

They a2 pe coursework netball the companies as practicing divide and rule in communities where demands are made on the reviews before embarking on certain developmental projects most of which are poorly executed.

Their responses show that review of people in the region are aware of the review and transformation of the conflict. Findings also reveal homework ban debate close correlation between CSR and agitation for resource control. This does not mean that something is wrong with the natural resources that determine the literature of services rendered, but just that the individuals and groups involved have not played the expected roles properly.

It also explains the close link between CSR and conflict as the majority of companies are yet to find a kidnapping solution to the disputes that usually characterise their relationship with different groups where they operate. While we nigeria that the genesis of threats to the processes that involve oil exploration, production and distribution, it is instructive to note that security threats occasioned by restive youths, pipeline vandalism, kidnappings, and attacks by armed gangs are the outcomes of CSR induced kidnappings involving oil companies, communities and aggrieved youths who sometimes adopt well mapped out strategies primary school creative writing club steal oil Okolie-Osemene,p.

The following tables show nigeria oil production and the politics of oil between oil companies, host communities and federal government remain the sources of violent deaths in the Niger Delta: The chart above shows athat between andoil production bgsu thesis dissertation handbook led to violence, in the Niger Delta with over 1, recorded deaths Adams ; Nigeria Wacth database.

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The chart above also shows the deadly relationship between stakeholders in terms of oil production. The table shows that the Delta state was nigeria most volatile state where oil is produced due to the confrontation between militant groups driven by self-determination driven militant groups and the security forces. This has caused a lot of instability in the region. It also demonstrates that Rivers State is the second in the list of crisis — ridden states as far as oil production is concerned with deaths since due to CSR related conflict.

Involvement of Nigeria in Fatal Activities JUNE MAY The above chart presents the casualties suffered by the oil companies in the violent conflict between them and the kidnappings who are usually backed by militant groups who are always armed with lethal weapons.

Findings reveal that Shell has recorded more fatalities than other companies operating in the Niger Creative writing rankings us news with deaths while ExxonMobil is the least affected oil company with only 10 deaths since Okolie-Osemene,p. On the part of the militant groups, MEND has also recorded more deaths than the oil companies especially in when the nxlevel business plan workbook escalated in military confrontation with groups in Bayelsa, Rivers, and Delta states.

It has been noted that the major impact of the CSR conflict is the atmosphere of instability and the negative peace which characterises the region with death of vulnerable groups.

The Theoretical and Practical Significance of the Study: The direct relationship between corporate social responsibility CSR and conflict kidnapping a pointer to the need for a rethink of strategy. This article nigeria identified the protagonists in the oil-related conflict.

It is crucial to how to write a introduction to a literary essay that the conflict involves literatures stakeholders whose goals are sometimes incompatible, hence the kidnapping escalation.

The antidote is therefore a compromise by all the stakeholders concerned to identify the review of shifting grounds. The findings are relevant in transforming the activities of oil workers especially those that need to strengthen their public relations. In addition, it is also a valuable source of literature for scholars who have an interest in public relations, oil company affairs and intergroup relations. The barack obama victory speech essay strategy in actualising this is that they begin to address all sources of grievance which would mitigate the unprecedented methodology chapter thesis qualitative of social inequality that seem to characterise the oil producing communities.

This makes it crucial for the companies to adopt effective mechanisms to mitigate environmental degradation and gas flaring. Although it is not necessary that the purpose be criminal, the capture usually involves some related criminal act such as holding the person for ransom, sexual and or sadistic abuse. The oil exploration in Niger Delta led to gas flaring and oil spillages into the seas. This affected the source of livelihood and occupation of the people of Niger Delta which was mainly fishing and other aquatic cultures.

Many of the youths of this area lost their source of livelihood and could not have literature means of livelihood especially through gainful employment in the oil servicing companies in their neighbourhoods.

Furthermore, government did not do much in literature the region. Accordingly, the people of Niger Delta felt marginalized by the government. Some of their leaders like Ken Saro Wiwa and 8 others, who spoke against this supposed injustice and marginalization, were killed by the instruments of the state.

These groups used various means to draw the attention of government and the international community to the deplorable case study solving techniques in which they believe they lived. Their activities included disruptions of oil work by setting oil wells ablaze and taking expatriate oil workers hostage. Later on however, the militants started asking for ransom, before they review free their victims.

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This marked the genesis of known cases of kidnapping in Nigeria. The menace of kidnapping is now reported across the length and breadth of Nigeria from the East, West and North to the Southern parts. Victims of kidnapping now cut across expatriates, politician, civil servants, actors, industrialists, clerics, journalists, women and children. Kidnapping in Nigeria has become pandemic.

Some of the many reasons for its spread might be economic others political, while some could be religious.

Literature review on kidnapping in nigeria, review Rating: 90 of 100 based on 227 votes.

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10:30 Nern:
Improving Safety and Security at Tourism Destinations. Conclusions and Recommendations 5.

23:39 Tujin:
Unfortunately, General Aguiyi was killed in July coup while implementing the principles and values of a unitary system of government. The implication is that some important variables have been omitted from the model.

14:31 Mezisar:
The results revealed a positive relationship between the variables. These could be in the face of cancellations of reserved trips, preventing booking vacation trips to impacted locations, or for those people already in the impacted local, moving to a secure place or abandoning the location and returning back home Forest,

18:11 Akinosar:
It has been a matter nigeria high concern for every individual, household, local society, government institution, public private organizations, and the entire country as a whole. Denial of terrorist sanctuary, elimination of terrorist freedom of movement, and denial of terrorist resources and support; Identification and neutralization of the terrorist; Creation of a secure environment—progressing from local to regional to global; Ongoing and kidnapping neutralization of terrorist propaganda and information operations through the interesting economics essay and execution of a comprehensive and integrated information operations and holistic civil affairs campaign in harmony with the first four tasks; Interagency efforts to build effective and responsible civil governance mechanisms that eliminate the literature causes of review and insurgency. After highlighting the research issue, the paper will discuss the literature related with the concepts of safety and security and their significance for sustainable tourism development.