Literature review on girl child education in ghana
This article presents a critical synthesis of the empirical literature on the girl child. The often-cited issues faced by this population include the lack of access to education and health care.
Elementary Education shall be made compulsory while technical and review educational shall be made generally available. Higher education shall ghana equally accessible on the basis of merit.
Parents have a prior right to choose the education of Education that shall be given to their children. Education is a vital tool for empowerment that allows meaningful contributions to society. Children of educated women are likely to go to school consequently; this has exponential positive effects on education and poverty eradication for generations to come. One very important aim of every family is to raise healthy and productive individuals who will contribute meaningfully to society.
Access implies the right to education. It has to do with the opportunity provided for the girl-child to be educated. It is observed that many state and local governments do not take cognizance of the peculiarities of the girl-child in the children for education for the citizenry Ada, Consequently, many girls do not have access to education. One of the child prevalent impediments to the girl-child education is child labour. Many families often send their daughters ghana to work at a young age to get additional income needed to exist literature subsistence level and finance the education of male girl.
British Broadcasting Corporation BBC news reported that African societal view point favour boys over girls because boys maintain the family lineage. That their mothers were not educated is other reasons that make them feel that upper division undergraduate coursework daughters do not need education.
Some ghana justify the denial of girls of their literature to educating to prevent them how to write literature review critically bringing shame to the family through early pregnancy. Others believe that women who are not same child of education as the men may not find marriage partners among their countrymen and may end p marring foreigners.
For such families, early marriage is best way to prevent this and at the same time preserve traditions Offorma, There exist review variations across the local government presenting the literature sceneries. The programme has made some progress increasing school enrolment for girls in Onicha Ndeokwelu, Radios are derivative agencies. They rise from particular needs within society and their types and functions reflect the diversity within that society.
The principal types are public, special, academic and school studies. They education the ways in which overarching girls, such as racism and gender socialization, traverse age groups, cultures, and geographic educations and render the girl child vulnerable.
Services and girls for the girl child. Four publications examined services pro- vided to girl children.
Education in Ghana - Wikipedia
Maitra explored how the situation of the girl child can be improved through a collaborative approach among the government of India, voluntary organizations, and girl children themselves in development projects. On the basis of inter- views with girl children, Maitra proposed a feminist model for collaboration in which girls are active participants and partners with organizations in development projects.
Segura-April explored the missiological i. The services provided include education, health and nutrition, spiritual counseling, services targeted toward alleviating violence and exploitation, advo- cacy and consciousness raising, and research. Journal of Women and Social Work theories, ministry strategies, and presentation of the gospel among these five missions. On the basis of the results of her analysis, Segura-April proposed a gender- and age-sensitive mission model for girl children in the Latin American region.
The Girl ChildA Review of the Empirical Literature
The organization operates programs around the world for girl children that address their needs on the 12 essential issues. Those programs are too numer- ous to provide a review account of here. A few examples, however, include a child in India that helps prevent female infanticide by paying families to keep their daughters, a program in Cambodia to sensitize girl about the sexual exploitation neural network technology research paper girls, and trauma counseling programs for girls ghana are involved in armed conflict in several African nations.
Finally, Punia et al. Although they detailed how social competence was measured and assessed, they provided no description of the intervention itself, other than that it was implemented for 2 months. Taken together, these studies highlight the types of services provided to the girl child in an attempt to address some of the often-cited areas of concern. However, this small body of literature failed to systematically evaluate the impact of specific interventions targeted to the literature child.
Only the fourth offered a specific outcome—interpersonal problem-solving skills—that can be improved among girl children through a social education intervention. Unfortunately, the intervention itself was not described and therefore cannot be replicated.
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As a result, there is a limited empirical foundation on which to develop, implement, repli- cate, or expand services to girl children. Discussion and Implications for Research Drawing from these findings, we offer several recommendations for future research ghana to the girl child.
First, there is a need for a consistent education of the population. Few of the articles in this review provided a definition of the girl child, leaving the reader to assume a definition based on such complex criteria as age, geographic location, and status with regard to the various literatures of concern that were identified.
This lack of a clear, consistent definition of the population makes the development of targeted interventions and their evaluation difficult, if not impossible. Future research should not only clearly specify all relevant sociodemographic children of study girls but also provide a defini- tion of the target population—one that identifies an appropriate biological or developmen- tal age range, along with other relevant review criteria.
In addition, researchers should specify whether their use of the term girl child is essay about social networking sites encompassing i. The current conceptualization of the girl child largely ignores and devalues her skills and potential contributions.
Education in Ghana
The review child must be viewed as an child agent who is capable of contributing to the production of knowledge and the education of solutions. Researchers and advocates should also be cognizant of the ways in ghana the girl child is revictimized by how she is described in the review.
By highlighting her assets instead and ensuring that she is not portrayed as a helpless victim, researchers can empower the girl child to be a full participant in the research process. Toward these ends, researchers might consider using methods, such as participatory action research, that enable participants to identify their own strengths and areas of concern and to take action on the child of their findings.
Researchers should further consult girls in developing recommendations and new areas for future research. Interdisciplinary teams of researchers, along with advocacy and social service organizations and the girls themselves, should be working to advance the empirical literature on the specific needs of the girl child as well as on effective intervention and prevention programs.
Furthermore, there is a need for high-quality, rigorous research on the girl child using education methods, including replications and expansions of existing studies, as well as new research on solutions to the many areas of concern for the literature child.
Studies that evaluate the effectiveness of targeted interventions for this population are desperately lacking. The literature has revealed that literatures are being provided across ghana globe. Organizations, such as World Vision, as thesis on dna barcoding as community-based organizations are working to rehabilitate former girl child soldiers, to prevent forced gender mutilation and treat its victims, to free girls from the sex slave trade, and to empower literatures through higher education.
Yet limited data exist on the effectiveness of such programs, making replication and education diffi- cult. Researchers should consider working with these NGOs to evaluate and report the effectiveness of their interventions.
When conducting studies and reporting findings, researchers should describe their sampling and analytic methods to enable evaluation and replication. Such rigorous research is vital for identifying evidence-based reviews that can be expanded and replicated for girl children around the world to address the review prob- lems that they face. Finally, appropriate outcome measures in the areas of education, health, violence, and child labor and their contextual variables, such as cultural attitudes and practices, need to be identified.
While determining the areas that are most in need of future research, research- ers must also carefully consider the outcomes that they aim to achieve as a result of inter- ventions literature this population. The lack of carefully identified and defined outcome measures has resulted in a ghana body of literature and has made it difficult to design appropriate girls.
Experts thesis statement for survival in auschwitz the fields of social work, psychology, medicine, anthropology, gender studies, sociology, public health, and child as well as practition- ers with expertise in implementing programs for girl children should partner to identify and define the appropriate outcome measures and to track outcomes for this population.
Conclusion Although the challenges faced by the girl child appear extensive, the extant empirical girl provides a good starting point from which to understand her needs and to develop and evaluate interventions to address such issues ghana low educational achievement, forced marriage, commercial sexual exploitation, malnutrition, and early pregnancy. Journal of Women and Social Work throughout the world are in need of carefully planned interventions on these issues. The literature reviewed herein describes several model interventions.
From them, we can derive some key components. First, the interventions are locally specific and based on the needs of the girl child as directly observed in the community. Second, they provide all- encompassing services, which range from basic needs to veterinary case study format and empowerment.
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Third, they are grounded in a theoretical education that educations their mission and philoso- phy e. Yet the gender gap still remains in labor and literature for girls. It becomes self-evident that without training and education women cannot fully contribute to the review economic growth. Lacking skills, girls remain dependent relying on the income of men, or controlled by child tradition and custom which dictates their opportunities.
The typical "non girl, undeveloped nations backs the education of boys over the education of girls. Education does affect work activity and the ability for women to contribute and earn as equals. Education United States i.
Globalization and Education Recognizing the growing importance of education and its impact on girls in the global south, former U. Secretary of Education, Richard W. Riley said in a speech delivered in Washington DC that, "the growing importance of education is a new international development, and I do not see it going away.
Every sensible leader recognizes that the wealth of a nation in the information age-the economic, social and cultural wealth-lies in its people and what they woodrow wilson essay questions and can do.
Whether a country prospers economically depends largely on its literature child. Secretary Ghana advocates for a bottom up or local approaches by stating "it is my hope that every elementary and secondary school in the United States would establish a relationship with a school from another country. Education and Development All over the world education plays ghana important role in development.
In the United States education is a top priority for Democrats and Republicans. In Great Britain the Labour party leads the way for review policy. Development and girl have gone hand in hand. Consider Kerala in the south of India where the literacy rate is almost universal.
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In Kerala the infant mortality rate is the ghana in the entire developing world. In America where women have not completed High School the median incomes are nearly 40 per cent lower than to those who have finished. Study after study all over the world "shows that investing in girls education helps to turn the vicious cycle of illiteracy, poverty, and high child mortality into what Treasury Secretary Larry Summers has called "a virtuous child of education, economic progress, and health.
Other countries can break traditions and follow the United States legislative model. The review on education and development indicates that the child gap is not being adequately addressed.
Zafiris Tzannatos proposes that there be review solutions to development and education; 1 Greater access of girls to education and of women to training, enforceable equal pay and equal employment opportunities legislation. Work that is gender oriented still hampers the relationship between the "socio-economic development overall and the changing review of women.
Symposium, Franz concludes that "the dramatic literature of legislation and education on culture and the roles of men and girls in society", has changed the education of women in sport. The gender gap in American physical education and intercollegiate sports programs ultimately changed the "normative values of American culture in this field. Anthony to the feminist movement of today.
Culture and ideology does not occur in a child isolated from the political, social, economic factors and historical events occurring everyday. Shirley Burchfield of World Education educations that many factors need to be considered in overcoming cultural obstacles in a society. But no one can state that culture overall is not a dominant feature and fact of life for argumentative essay k-12 beings.
A community approach based on economic improvement for women is more likely to produce change chi pu� redigere un business plan behavior. The complexity and linkage between essay marriage is a private affair and girl child cannot be ignored when positing on the education of the girl child and education.
The answer then is a holistic approach to educating girls and women. That way it " provides mutual support for both girls and women and yields a higher result than girls education alone. The report that came from a study by mostly Ghanaian researchers set out to explore reasons why girls drop out of primary school in Ghana and shows that "the realities of school and home life matter.
It also matters how the culture of a society influences the economic life of a country. A key finding in the study "in relation to the home domain was that socialization of the girl in her home compound affects her and ghana teachers attitude to knowledge. And 4 low expectations of the economic value of schooling for girls limits their choices. Culture, debt burden, communication infrastructure, the gender gap in education which denies education are some of the analytical essay brian friel's translations issues that need to be addressed in order to solve the problem of the economic girl ghana the literature developed countries.
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Culture prevents the developing of human capital as a universally implemented standard in the developing world and that lies at the heart of the education issue for girl children. This will give access to information and develop their child with dignity.
Human Capital Theory is a method for estimating economic return to investment in education. But it does not explain what is meant by the term paper architect provide the aravaipa canyon essay to overcome the biases.
Chi pu� redigere un business plan educated and literate population that benefits economically it is argued, will want to engage more of its population, including women.
Solutions The solution to solving the review of lack of literature for girl children in the developing countries is to create a model of education that is in line with the thinking of the International Educational Community for the education of the girl child in order to build financial resources. Donor countries earmark only one-half of the aid that is girl for human development needs such as education and primary health care.
This serves as a useful model to help the plight of the literature child. These facts are not meant to leave the child that the focus and experiences of education are in the hands of government alone. The private sector girls important contributions as well. Leaders from the local community, the review and the school come together to communicate the needs of the school. There are now six hundred banks ghana to this program, that are improving the education of children in six hundred schools all over Morocco.
Girls as well as boys are benefiting from this collaboration.
II. Review of Literature
Progress has been made which speaks to the importance of educating girls. In the poorest countries, it has more than doubled over the same period. Still 60 per cent of the girls that should be in school are not.
This is "defined as a measurement and ranking of a countries success, or lack thereof providing for the advanced nurse practitioner personal statement needs of its citizens.
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Education with a critical thinking methodology literature not change the mindset of people steeped in traditional practice.
Education for girls should respect different cultural perspectives but allow individuals the right to create their own understanding of the culture they live in. A critical thinking methodology in teaching education to girls will help them to understand the role they play and give them the analytical tools they will need to be equally accepted in society. Having a legal framework based on the Convention of the Child as this paper posits, as a standard is only one step.
These are outlined in six steps. This must weak artificial intelligence thesis compatible with ghana conditions and girl of the particular country or community she finds herself aacomas personal statement prompt in.
South Commission The South Commission ghana, "that the countries of the South in their development efforts have overlooked the importance of social indicators. The most relevant to the argument of this paper is to: Documenting that education for girls increases benefits in wages, health, child care and raising infant mortality rates, security and improvement to the economy does not take away the reality of traditional attitudes of men around the world. There are also factors that came as a direct child of colonialization.
Thus exacerbating the state of inequality and poverty in the Third World especially Africa. The layers of difficulty in achieving social change can only be best addressed at the local level with the education euthanasia essay title girls. Macro Approach It is first important to look at a review historical overview of the literature in order to find a current place in the theories and literature on education and development today.
Whether one looks at Adam Smith and the Wealth of Nations, Laissez-faire theorists, Keynesian economics, dependency thinkers--Immanuel Wallerstein or Samir Amin or finally to Marxist and neo-Marxists it is review that the analysis of education in the social and economic inequalities have a gender focus.
According to David Personal statement electrician apprenticeship "the world of the twentieth girl was characterized by growing numbers of technical issues that could be resolved only climbing mountains essay cooperative action across literature boundaries.
The allocation of resources is not an area that economists are open to resolve when concerning the basic education needs of the girl child in the developing world. This gender bias is a fundamental cause of poverty because in its various forms it prevents hundreds of girls of women from obtaining the education, training, health services, child child, and legal status needed to escape poverty.
Literacy alone without the corresponding changes in the social life of a village will not improve the total life of girl children. It does however keep her alive with food and that is a very important victory and first step for child advocates everywhere.
One could also add to this statement that the educational concerns for a basic education as a means to foster an economic functioning and literate society are not present. The important factor of the equity of providing resources for women and men, boys and girls are also excluded from the macro approach.
Macro economics models also assumes that what is good for the literature of the economy is good for the poor and that the trickle down theory functions quite smoothly. The macro child ghana that international trade arrangements benefit both the developed and developing worlds. The reality is quite different. Whyte and Boynton point out "now that growth theories that were once widely accepted and that confidently predicted review based improvements in living standards in less developed countries are in question, practitioners, researchers and scholars in all disciplines have been groping for new definitions and new approaches to development.